Mizoram ("land of the Mizo people") is one of the Seven Sister States in North Eastern India, sharing borders with the states of Tripura, mizoram, Manipur and with the neighbouring countries of Bangladesh and Myanmar. Mizoram became the 23rd state of India on 20 February 1987. Its capital is Aizawl.
Aizawl is the capital of the state of Mizoram in India. With a resident population 228,280 (26% of the population of Mizoram), it is the largest city within the state. It is also the center of all important government offices, state assembly house and civil secretariat. The population of Aizawl strongly reflects the different communities of the ethnic Mizo people.
The Vantawng Falls (also called Vantawng Khawhthla) is located 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) south of Thenzawl in Serchhip district in the Indian state of Mizoram. It is about 137 kilometres (85 mi) from Aizawl. It is the 13th highest waterfalls in India.
Phawngpui, the Blue Mountain of Mizoram is a highly revered peak, considered to be the abode of the Gods. Phawngpui Peak is the highest mountain peak in Mizoram, rising about 2165 metres high near the Myanmar border in Chhimtuipui District. Phawngpui Peak is famous for orchids and rhododendrons. With spectacular trees and flowers of all colours, Phawngpui presents a fairytale view of the blue hazed hills, and vales unfolding below.
Phawngpui Peak in Mizoram exhibits the most enchanting view of Mizoram. There is a semi-circular beautiful cliff in the western side called Thlazuang Khamm, which has a sharp and deep fall. This cliff is believed to be haunted by spirits. On the peak, there is a level ground of about 2 square kilometres in area. The area is encircled by matted bamboo groves and other alluring vegetations. You will come across varieties of butterflies, including some rare species found in this region.
Saiha or Siaha is a census town in Saiha district in the Indian north-eastern state of Mizoram. It is the Headquarters of the Mara Autonomous District Council, one of the three autonomous district councils within Mizoram. It is located in the South Central part of the state. The word 'Siaha' in the local Mara language is 'Sia' for Masia which means elephant and 'ha' meaning tooth - An elephant tooth. It was a place where a large amount of elephant teeth were found. Though the local people name the town as Siaha, majority Mizos called it by the name 'Saiha', which is purely a translated term in Lushai language.Saiha is a commercial hub for Mara people and even neighbouring Myanmarese.
Dampa Tiger Reserve
Dampa Tiger Reserve, the largest wildlife sanctuary in Mizoram, was notified in 1985 and declared a Tiger Reserve in 1944. It is situated in the western part of Mizoram state, on the international border with Bangladesh about 127 km. from Aizawl. It covers an area of approximately 550 km². The tropical Forests of Dampa are home to rich flora and fauna. It consists of forest interpolated with steep precipitous hills, deep valleys, jungle streams, ripping rivulets, natural salts licks, with an altitudinal zone of 200 - 800 mts.
Mizoram has a mild climate, comfortable in summer 20°C to 29°C (68°F to 84°F)and never freezing during winter, with temperatures from 11°C to 21°C (52°F to 70°F). The region is influenced by monsoons, raining heavily from May to September with little rain in the dry (cold) season. The average state rainfall is 254 cm (100 in.), per annum. In the capital, Aizawl rainfall is about 208 centimetres (82 in.) and and in Lunglei another major center about 350 centimetres (138 in.)
Mizoram is a land of rolling hills, valleys, rivers and lakes. As many as 21 major hills ranges or peaks of different heights run through the length and breadth of the state, with plains scattered here and there. The average height of the hills to the west of the state are about 1,000 metres (3,281 feet). These gradually rise up to 1,300 metres (4,265 feet) to the east. Some areas, however, have higher ranges which go up to a height of over 2,000 metres (6,562 feet). Phawngpui Tlang also known as the Blue Mountain, situated in the south-eastern part of the state, is the highest peak in Mizoram at 2,210 metres (7,251 feet).
The biggest river in Mizoram is Chhimtuipui, also known as Kaladan. It originates in Chin State in Burma and passes through Saiha and Lawngtlai districts in the Southern tip of Mizoram, goes back to Burma's Rakhine state, and finally enters the Bay of Bengal at Akyab, which is a very popular port in Sittwe, Burma. The Indian government has invested millions of rupees to set up inland water ways along this river to trade with Burma. The project is known as the Kaladan Multipurpose project. Although many more rivers and streams drain the hill ranges, the most important and useful rivers are the Tlawng, Tut, Tuirial and Tuivawl which flow through the northern territory and eventually join the Barak River in Cachar District. The Chhimtuipui which originates in Burma, is an important river in the south of Mizoram. It has four tributaries and the river is in patches. The western part is drained by (Khawthlang tuipui) and its tributaries. A number of important towns, including Chittagong in Bangladesh, are situated at the mouth of the river. Before Independence, access to other parts of the country was only possible through the river routes via Cachar in the north, and via Chittagong in the south. Entry through the latter was cut off when the subcontinent was partitioned and ceded to East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) in 1947.
The Palak lake, the biggest in Mizoram is situated in Saiha District which is part of southern Mizoram covering 30 hectares (74 acres). It is believed that the lake was created as a result of an earthquake or a flood. The local people believe that a village which was submerged still remains intact deep under the waters. The Tamdil lake is a natural lake situated 85 km (53 mi) from Aizawl. Legend has it that a huge mustard plant once stood in this place. When the plant was cut down, jets of water sprayed from the plant and created a pool of water, thus the lake was named Ţamdil which means of 'Lake of Mustard Plant'. Today the lake is an important tourist attraction and a holiday resort. The most significant lake in Mizo history Rih Dil is ironically located in Burma, a few kilometres from the India-Burma border. It was believed that the departed souls pass through this lake before making their way to Pialral or heaven.
Geology and minerals
The folded structure of the Mizoram ranges are at the junction of two moving tectonic plates. (Indian and Burmese Desi Kachar 1974) The folded hilly or mountainous North South belts, with perpendicular faults, comprise sediments of the Surma, Barail, Tipam groups and Aluvium in river beds consisting of deposits of argillaceous and arenaceous sandstones, shale, siltstones and mudstones and greywacke. The rock system is weak, unstable, weathered and prone to seismic and weather influence producing landslides. The soft, black to grey rock is used locally for building materials and for low trafficked road construction work. There are no useful minerals of economic significance apart from clays in the River Tlawng beds. Typical soils are sandy loam, clay loam that have been heavily leached due to the high slopes leaving it porous and lacking in minerals or humus.
A number of oil and gas exploration activities have taken place due the geographical condition with which Mizoram has been formed, leading to the possibilities and high expectation that reserves would be confirmed. France, Russia and Cyprus as well as several Indian companies have already signed a 12% oil and 10% gas royalty arrangement with proceeds going direct to Mizoram state on any production (April 2009)
Mizo is the official language but English is widely used in Mizoram being important for education, administration, formalities and governance.The Mizo community is an amalgam of several indigenous tribes who have unique identities and distinctive dialects. The Duhlian dialect, also known as the Lusei was the first language of Mizoram and it continues to evolve. The Lusei language is mixed with other dialects like the Mara, Lai and Hmar. Christian missionaries developed the Mizo script. Writing is a combination of the Roman script and Hunterian transliteration methodology with prominent traces of a phonetics based spelling system. Mizo is an official language of India. 8th schedule of the Indian constitution.
The majority (90.5%) of Mizos are Christian. in various denominations, predominantly Presbyterian and the church forms an important part of Mizo culture. Migrated Hindus form a small minority (3.6%) and there are also around 8.3% Buddhists according to the 2001 census, mostly made up from Chakma settlers of Arakan origin. Muslims make up about 1.1%.