London is the capital of England and the United Kingdom, the biggest metropolitan region in the United Kingdom and the prime town zone in the European amalgamation by most measures. London has been a most important resolution for 2 millennia, its the past going back to its founding by the Romans, who called it Londinium. London's very old core, the City of London, mainly retains its square-mile mediaeval boundaries. Since at slightest the 19th century, the name London has also referred to the metropolis urbanized around this core. The mass of this conurbation forms the London regionand the Greater London administrative area, administrated by the elected Mayor of London and the London Assembly.
London is a most important international city, with powers in the arts, commerce, learning, amusement, fashion, economics, healthcare, media, professional services, research and development, tourism and transportation all contributing to its importance. It is the world's largest monetary centre alongside New York, has the largest city GDP in Europe and is home to the headquarters of more than 100 of Europe's 500 largest companies. It is the most appointment city in the world. London's 5 international airports make its airspace the busiest of any urban centre worldwide and London Heathrow is the world's busiest airport by number of global passengers. London's 43 universities form the largest attentiveness of higher education institutions in Europe. In 2012 London will become the primary city to host the Summer Olympics 3 times.
London has a miscellaneous variety of peoples, civilizations and religions, and more than 300 languages are spoken within its boundaries. In July 2007 it had an authorized population of 7,556,900 within the boundaries of Greater London, making it the mainly populous municipality in the European Union. The Greater London Urban Area is the 2nd largest in the EU with a population of 8,278,251, while London's metropolitan region is the largest in the EU with an predictable whole population of between 12 million and 14 millions.
London includes 4 World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London; Kew Gardens; the site comprising the fort of Westminster, Westminster Abbey and St. Margaret's Church; and the significant settlement of Greenwich .Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, 30 St Mary Axe , St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge and Trafalgar Square. London is home to plentiful museums, galleries, libraries, sporting events and other enlightening institutions including the British Museum, National Gallery, British Library, Wimbledon and 40 theatres. London's Chinatown is the biggest in Europe. The London alternative network is the oldest underground railway network in the world and the most wide-ranging after the Shanghai Metro.
Superior London is the High-level managerial sub partition casing London. The little, olden City of London at its heart once contained the whole resolution, but as the city area grew the City conglomerate resisted efforts to amalgamate it with its suburbs, causing "London" to be defined in a number methods for dissimilar reasons; and the circumstances was once release to lawful debate. 40% of Greater London is enclosed by the London post town, within which 'LONDON' forms part of postal addresses. The London telephone area code (020) wraps a larger area, alike in size to Greater London, although some outer districts are mislaid and some places just outside are included. The area within the orbital M25 motorway is usually what is referred to as 'London'. And the Greater London border has been arranged in a lined to it in positions.
External urban growth is now prohibited by the Metropolitan Green Belt, even though the built-up region make bigger beyond the border in places, ensuing in a discretely defined Greater London Urban Area. Beyond this is the huge London traveler belt. Greater London is divide for some reasons into Inner London and Outer London. The metropolis is dividing by the River Thames into North and South, with an relaxed Central London area in its interior. The synchronizes of the supposed centre of London, usually considered to be the original Eleanor Cross at Charing Cross near the connection of Trafalgar Square and Whitehall.
London has a moderate marine climate, like much of the British Isles, so the metropolis rarely sees extremely towering or low temperatures. London obtains a normal of only 1468 hours of sunshine every year. Regardless of this, summers are normally warm, with daytime temperatures above 20 ° on over ninety of days. Humid weather can usually be predictable from May to September – in recent years; 30 °C has been recorded in early May on numerous incidents and as late as mid September. On standard, London receives 28 days above 25 °C per year, and 4 days above 30 °C. All of these climate information are based on averages from sheltered suburbs